Articles

22 Dec
the papers required for obtainin
the papers required for obtainin

 

 

The papers required for obtaining a construction permit

 

Individuals, companies and institutions must submit an application for a certificate in Artistic Business Administration

 

Submit the application in paper form

 

Download and complete the application form, then submit it to the Development and Building Permits Department of the Technical Affairs Department

A true copy of the title deed

A copy of the ID card for individuals or a copy of the corporate business license.

A letter from the Housing Department - Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs

No objection letter from the owner.

A certificate bearing for the top additions.

Where to provide the service

Development and building permits section of the Ministry of Municipality.

additional information

• A contracting company undertaking must be submitted, and a contracting company authorized.

• The Ministry of Municipal and Urban Planning on its website explains the procedures for providing the service in detail and in the form of a plan.

• It takes 3 business days to complete this service.

Fees

• 100 QR open a file.

• 100 QR drawing fee.

• Insurance fees refundable upon completion of construction.

• Estimated drawing according to the construction areas with maps.

Request to issue a building completion certificate

Individuals, companies and institutions must submit an application to the Development and Building Permits Department of the Technical Affairs Department to obtain a construction completion certificate.

Submit the application in paper form

• Download and complete the application form, then submit it to the Development and Building Permits Section of the Technical Affairs Department.

• Attach a certificate of conformity of materials and specifications used in the construction.

• Site image and exterior dye sample.

A copy of the building permit.

• Statistics forms.

• A copy of the identity card of the owner and the applicant.

• A hard copy of the (architectural) maps.

• Site hygiene certificate (issued by the Technical Control Department - Municipal Control Department).

additional information

Approvals for services must be submitted according to the type of construction.

Survey marks must be re-placed (at the discretion of the municipality engineer).

The Ministry of Municipal and Urban Planning on its website explains the procedures for providing the service in detail and as a plan.

It takes a week to complete this service, except in case of violations.

 

 

For each villa: 100 QR (personal residence).

For two villas or for commercial or industrial projects: QR 1,000.

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19 Dec
Wooden wrenches
Wooden wrenches

The wrenches of the armed bases

To complete the work of the armed bases, you must use the executive and structural drawings of the bases and baskets, and through the tables the dimensions of the bases on the board can be determined in order to make the form required to obtain the base, then the pallet is formed and grouped together to obtain the final form of the armed base.

 Tympanoplasty method:

The slabs of the slab are cut according to the required lengths of the base and grouped together with the required heights by serving the slabs of the slabs on one side and connecting the slabs with a clamp at the beginning and at the end so that enlightenment does not occur in the pallet next to the base.

1- The panels are collected and fixed by means of beams, which are preferable from the wood of the wood, and the distance between the beam and the other is about 50 cm, and the distance between the floor panels and the first beam is about 15 cm.

2- After that, the panels are fixed to the upper and lower panels.

3 - In the event that there are connections to the pallet boards, these connections should be chess structure, spaced apart.

4- Al-Tabali is assembled and tanned together, so that the net dimensions of the base are length x width, which are the dimensions of the drum from inside to inside after assembly.

5- Adjust the corners of the base and secure the clogs to avoid opening them during casting.

6- The pallet is strengthened by supplies, dum, and checks with the weight of the pallet vertically by the thread balance or water balance.

How to receive the severity of the rules if they are standardized:

The intensity must be received at least one week before the casting time, to ensure that its dimensions are stable when casting.

Be sure to match the axes on construction drawings.

Be sure to match its dimensions and the corresponding angles to the graphics.

Ensure that there are no voids between the pleural plates.

Be sure to vertical the sides.

It must be ensured that it is strengthened, by having damp beams, checks, bolts and supplies.

B) the strength of the concrete columns

Because the columns are in multiple cases in terms of the sector, the work of wood beams has no difference in terms of installation except when forming the column sector and the most commonly used types of columns are:

 

Square or rectangular columns of the sector.

Angled columns.

Circular or engineering columns “pent - revolver - octagon”.

Its columns overlook the highway “Pillar of Candle”.

It is advisable to tighten several columns together so that the stresses are supported by some of them. The following is an explanation of the method of tightening the concrete columns:

 The strength of the square or rectangular concrete columns:

1- Ponti brushes shall be placed 1m away from the axis of the shaft.

2- Four bricks are placed on the mattress, or wood is preferred in large sectors.

3- Lower liners of linear and transverse veins are placed on the brick molds and held together by iron clamps, “clamp stitches”.

4- After that, the vertical lists are fixed by "veins of laires" in the trusses through clamps, taking into consideration that these lists are completely vertical and symmetrical.

5- After that, it works with middle grooves, which are completely lower, and at a distance of 180: 160 cm from the lower grooves.

6- After this, the distress is made by veins, so the leary is placed diagonally so that it is fixed in two legs.

7- After that, the flanges are completed, so that the distance between the second and the following flats is about 1.5 m.

8- After that, the structural thread is stretched over the axes to determine the column sector in the tension.

9- If the thread interferes with the lower truss, it must be raised, by working his bride on the pig to raise the axes at the required level.

10- The column section is determined by the axes, leaving a distance of 2.5 m from the sides of the two directions, the thickness of the wood, then we begin to install the two sides of the sides by clamping the stitches on the lower veranda, then the back is fixed and the door is left until the column is bound.

11- We complete the rest of the stations on the existing bonds by doing another work, put it on the column and weigh it by the scale of the thread with the first leg and tighten the thread of Banawi on the first and last steps, then fix the rest of the stations on the thread.

12- We start binding the column, starting with the back, then the sides, then separating the Pope and falling from the top after stacking the iron, then fixing the section.

13- We start to reinforce the column through the belts and the sliders, so that the column is ready for pouring.

 

 

The intensity of the reinforced columns in the form of "L" angle inside the building:

Some engineers prefer in many cases, especially when using thick walls, that the column pours between buildings with its binding from only two sides, in order to ensure concrete mixing with buildings and not any numbles between the columns and walls due to landing or use.

Wooden wrenches for round columns:

Its intensity works in two types:

1- Baghdadi intensity:

In this type, the Baghdadi wood nails are used to form the circular column sector as close to the proper circle as this intensity is, and its cohesion is controlled by two or more pieces of woodwork, each of which is made up of two parts that join together, then the vouchers are placed in them, then they are separated into the two halves of the intensity of the column to facilitate the process. Tightening and jawing.

2- The intensity of the octagon or the intensity of the corrugated core:

This intensity works and it is less in the expenses, as it is eight, seven, or six or more sides or less depending on the required column.

Usually, strip panels are used 1 inch x 8 cm or 1 inch x 10 cm, but more than that, the circular shape is far from the required accuracy.

Steps to receive columns from reinforced concrete

Dimensional conformity of the sector dimensions in the executive drawings.

Steps to receive columns from reinforced concrete

Dimensional conformity of the sector dimensions in the executive drawings.

Required height and taking into account the fall of the beams.

Check the diameters, number and positions of skewers as per the drawings.

Verify the entities in terms of shape, number and diameters according to the drawings.

Ensure that the column is completely vertical and receive the scale by thread.

Ensure smoothness of concrete surfaces.

No nesting, side slits, corner fractures or concrete cover.

Smoothing casting and concrete color.

Receive the corners at the iron angle.

Strength of arbitrage, bonding and support.

He spotted his streak together.

Regular distribution of iron in the corners and the presence of adequate cover without increasing or decreasing.

The column is free of any foreign bodies, from hard wood, brick, and so on.

The concrete does not leak from the intensity while casting.

He left the column top roughly without leveling to increase his association with the above round.

Pour in batches every 50 cm with blood and rub.

Jaw carefully to not break the sock.

Use plastic units to keep iron.

Uncertainty of cement.

Put wet sackcloth in heat or too cold to keep concrete moisturized

C) The wooden wrenches for roofs and beams

These formations are made after pouring the concrete pillars of the building and work begins by determining the level of the lower surface of the concrete the reinforced ceiling, which is considered the level of the upper face of the intensity and this is done by doing "drinking" on the concrete columns and is usually at an altitude of one meter from the level of the building pavement and then taken a fixed shot representing the distance Between the drinking placed on the columns and the level of the wooden intensity of the ceiling, we also take other shots between the said drinking and the level of the bottom of the wooden strength of the different beams.

Ceiling intensity for ground floor:

1- Demsa is placed from the veins of Fileri according to the distribution of the legs of the beams and the roof tiles according to the fall of the beams and the thickness of the roof.

2- The highest sticks of ductile paint are placed on top of the boards according to the distribution of the legs.

3- The vertical uprights are placed directly on the mattresses and are fixed according to the fall of the beams and the roof tiles.

4- In the event that the fall of the beams is less than 60 cm, and the roof tiles are less than 15 cm, then the rolls shall be distributed at distances not exceeding 1 m.

5- In case the ceiling is raised to a high height, the legs should be connected to the required level, so that the link should not be less than 1m, and they should be well bonded with swaddling and frogs.

6- The legs are linked together by the grooves that are fixed with the swaddling in all directions and are at a height of 2.20: 1.80 m due to the non-dentation of the legs.

7- The tension is used in all directions, longitudinally and transversely, because the tension is not tilted or shaken.

8- Notice the height of the level, and his cat is taken from drinking to the required height up to the bottom of his stomachs, on the concrete pillar, and the fall of the beams is deducted according to the drawings.

 

 

 

9 - The position of the veins in the direction of the short sea is to prevent relaxation or marring.

10- The sweat is placed on his sword at the required level and attached in the legs to the swaddles and frogs, taking into account that the races of the sweat are minus 5 cm from the beam, and that the thickness of the pleura is side + width.

11- The veins should be completely horizontal, by weighing them through the cod and the water scale.

12- The last race is taken at the end of the cry, and it conforms exactly to the same specifications as the first race.

13- Pull a thread longitudinally at the bottom of the first and last race of the two ends, and another thread longitudinally from the top of the races, so that the remaining streaks can be placed on the same level, and well linked to the legs by the swaddles and frogs.

14- The first stroke is taken at the beginning and the end of the crying, with a decrease of 5 cm from each side. The thickness of the pleural side is 2.5 cm and the width is 2.5 cm.

15- A thread must be drawn longitudinally from the first stalking phase at the beginning and the crying end, then the rest of the strings will be placed on the same alignment as this tight thread.

16- Install the mirror plate, taking into account its lack of 2.5 cm, the value of the length of the crossbar from the side, for example, the fall of the beam 40 cm. The crossbar with a side drum block, taking into account the vertical side drum.

17- The application panels shall be installed taking into account the absence of close connections from each other and the absence of enlightening of the application panels to ensure that the concrete block does not leak from it.

18 - In the event of cornices, fenders, or cabels, it is necessary to tighten the row of "Alexandrian" menus and to sweat and subtract according to the drawings.

19- Finally, the exterior sides, including the thickness of the roof tiles, are installed finally. For example, as an outer beam, it falls 40 cm. The inner side works 42.5 cm. The exterior is more than the thickness of the roof tile.

  Tilted roof strength:

Its system shall be in the same system as the regular wrenches, with adjusting the level of the highest point and the two lowest points in the sides or on the one side, according to the case. Then the sifting and wooding will begin, so that the height of the rolls used is graded according to the tendency of the roof to give the required inclination.

If the roof is curved, coordinates must be taken at several points, and it should be taken to fill it with heights from a fixed level, while adjusting the height at each point there is a level, and this situation appears in the ceilings of the stands and theaters.

D) The severity of armed contracts

Contracts are tightened by adjusting the spindle with a thread, then stacking, installing and reinforcing transverse cutting boards according to the drawings according to the contract, whether it is rotation, pointed or oval, and thickness according to the engineering drawings.

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18 Dec
Safety rules and protections
Safety rules and protections

Safety rules and protections to be followed in construction sites

The responsibility for implementing safety rules rests with the contractor . employer . safety controller

First Safety Duties

 Ensuring continuous escort on site with implementation of the following protective conditions

 

  1. Implement the preventive civil defense directives.
  2. Organizing the site evacuation in emergency situations.
  3. -Smoking prevention and ignition sources on site.
  4. -Setting guidance boards for dangerous places.
  5. -Supervising the maintenance of firefighting equipment.
  6. -The safety inspector is considered directly responsible to the site’s chief of work

Second: Safety conditions related to the use of the winches and their accessories

  1. -To be licensed to operate and equipped with safety means.
  2. -It contains indicative panels for operation and maintenance in Arabic.
  3. -Forklift arms and handles are provided with locking means.
  4. -Fixing the winches to the dedicated pillars to ensure their stability
  5. -Clarity of vision for the driver in order to control the operation and functioning of the crane or provide him with an aid
  6. automatic brakes when the crane stops working.
  7. -Commitment to the authorized load weight.
  8. -Protecting people inside the cage of the crane with doors that only open from the inside and when they stop.
  9. -Fastening the tires tires and the load when using trucks or wheelbarrows
  10. -Qualification of persons using towing and lifting equipment.

Third: Safety conditions when performing excavation work:

  1. -Excavation work must be done under the supervision of the competent engineering authority.
  2. -Securing the site and its vicinity when using explosives and obtaining permits to use it.
  3. -Making temporary supports to prevent the drilling sides from falling on the workers
  4. -Making barriers ropes and pipes equipped with a colored tape to warn a distance of 1 meters from the edge of the pits.
  5. -Locating the cables electricity .phone .water before starting the excavation work.

Fourth Safe handling of electrical current at the site

The electrical current has many risks that may not be noticed at first sight so strict prohibitions and safety and security regulations should be followed when dealing with it according to the following guidelines

 

  1. -Suitable electrical appliances for dangerous places.
  2. -Using appropriate personal protective equipment when dealing with electricity.
  3. -Keeping flammable materials away from the locations of electrical appliances.
  4. -Replacing the damaged connections wires with new ones.
  5. -Fixing and fastening the ends of the wires when conducting and not leaving them hanging.

When dealing with devices using electrical current the following instructions should be followed

  1. -Ensure that the electrical current is connected or not before starting work.
  2. -Not touching the electrical wires and leaving enough distance.
  3. -Using the insulated floor that is not affected by water.
  4. -Not to use any broken electrical source or any disturbance.
  5. -Disconnect the electrical devices after finishing the work.

Fifth: Safe handling when using scaffolding

  1. -Conforming the design and installation of scaffolding to engineering department specifications
  2. -Installing scaffolding on flat ground
  3. -Quality of scaffolding panels and free of protrusions and paints
  4. -Connecting and fixing the scaffolds well to ensure their stability
  5. -When the building is higher than two floors the scaffolding will be iron aluminum

Sixth Site cleanliness

  1. -Providing the necessary garbage waste bins.
  2. -Cleaning all the daily work places.
  3. -Allocating locked boxes to paints and thinner and not pouring them into the sewers.
  4. -Keeping wood away from ignition sources.

Seven: Instructions related to industrial safety

 

  1. -Applying technical safety rules when using machines to maintain them.
  2. -Wearing protective clothing and traitors.
  3. -Providing the site with warning signs for dangerous places.
  4. -Illuminating the barriers to avoid falling into the pits.
  5. -Non-housing of workers inside the site.
  6.  
  7. -The materials and raw materials must be protected from weather conditions rain .frost
  8. -The materials and materials should be protected from moisture by lifting them from the ground on wooden or iron drums.
  9. -The homogeneity of materials when storing.
  10. -Stacking the bags regularly and with a height not exceeding 8 bags
  11. -Washing tools and tools after each use.
  12. -Dismantle and clean machine parts thoroughly after each use and reinstall them.
  13. -Putting tools and tools in a clean place and away from moisture and water.
  14. -Wiping parts and tools with oil to prevent rust.
  15. -Arrange and store tools and tools according to type and size.

Ninth First aid

 

It must be available in the workplace and be in the form of fixed box mobile bag

 

 

Its advantages

 

  1. -It should be simple in shape.
  2. -Quick to open when using.
  3. -Organizing and arranging its contents for easy and easy access.

Contents of first aid kit

 

  1. -Tools  It includes scissors .tongs or dried .pins and clips .thermometer thermometer

 

  1. -Refills It is represented in leather cleaner .gauze .plaster .multiple sizes laces

 

  1. -Antiseptics These include skin cleanser Dettol .microcosm .iodine

 

 

  1. -Ointments: as antibiotics  for burns . sensitive skin

 

  1. -Eye drops
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15 Dec
Concrete
Concrete

Concrete works for foundations
Concrete is generally a mixture of aggregate, aggregate, and adhesive, called:
Ordinary concrete: if it is free of reinforcing steel.
 White concrete: if a broken stone or ditchum replaces the mixture.
 Fino concrete: if used as a small grit.
 Reinforced concrete: if supplied with reinforcing steel bars.
 Red concrete: if you use reddish instead of cement.
 Decat concrete: under the ground floor tiles.
Concrete inclinations: if you work for the bathrooms or the roof.
 Weak concrete: if used in light debris.
 Special concrete: If it has special qualities.
Carrying out regular concretes for foundations, ducts and slanted concretes:
1- The throwing pallet begins its work after the blades of the blaster in charge of grinding and sand in the form of adjacent piles are charged in the box half a cubic meter to the square meter and the square in a box of a quarter of a cubic meter of sand in regular concrete works.

2- The proportions shall be according to the contract specifications, and its selection depends on the purpose of its use and on the price and on the existing materials.
3- Knocks on all sides of the base are knocked to the level of the required concrete, as well as a wooden clipping of a fixed level outside the base. Then, drinking is determined, taking into account any difference required in some of the rules by increasing or decreasing.
4- Mix the proportions of the large and fine aggregate that is required for the concrete required on the blaster according to the specifications, then add the agreed cement percentage and add water in a simple amount according to the discretion of the engineer and carry this concrete to my drums from the sheet and be thrown with the knot and take into account that the hands of the nose are as close as possible to the pier when throwing so as not to The mortar is separated from each other and the concrete should be fermented in at least four or three hearts, provided that the first or two hearts are on the blotter to ensure the mixing of sand, cement and cement together.
5- Ponte boards shall be placed on the letters of the well from at least two sides, on which the pillar shall be supported during throwing, so as not to dirt the soil inside the pits on the concrete.
6- Formati comes down to the well to hand concrete in mandala, and when the concrete reaches the required level and serves the face with two rulers to be completely flat and capable of iron brushes, the reinforced bases are on it.
7- Receipt:
 It must be identical in composition to the proportions of the specifications.
 The method of its fermentation must be complete and proper.
Throwing them must be healthy.
 It must be sprayed with heavy water for 3 days 24 hours after pouring.
8- In the regular concrete of the foundations, its thickness, i.e. its height, should be at least equal to the appearance of its sides from the point of the sides of the reinforcement of the reinforced base on it and its emergence from the table or the wall above it, thus there will be a 45 ° angle between the regular concrete letter at the bottom and the point of reinforcement of the reinforced concrete Cracks occur due to less thickness, and this angle works in cases of running first degree business.
reinforced concrete works
Reinforced concrete generally consists of:
Sand + gravel + cement + water + iron
In addition to some additions in some special cases.
Acts of bases, medes, and armed walls:
1- The reinforced field is carried out on the ground with lime or sand, by taking its clean dimensions from the outer field and making the width of the pits with a thickness of about 15 cm greater than the side from each side to facilitate the tensile work.

2- The reinforced bases and the treads are reinforced with the wooden panels of Al-Lizana, with their different sizes, with good punching on the sides.
3- These buildings are around the sides of the med and the bases with a thickness of 12 cm, and some contractors intend to build them with a thickness of 6 cm, i.e. a brick on its sword and with a stronger tongue than the previous one.
4- Prepare the iron where it is bent, wrinkled, and rough.
5- The reinforcing steel is stacked according to the structural drawings of the armed bases and the armed field.
6- The concrete fermentation boxes are equipped with either a box, a number of seals, grills or mechanical mixing packages.
7- In the separate foundations rules it is recommended that the iron installment be set by placing a skewer around the base sides of the base in the top to connect the base iron with it all from its outer circumference so that it does not move from its place, then the reinforcement of the columns is placed in its place with the entire column height to the last height or part height Of it to become a sign to contact the shaft when stacked after pouring the base.
8- Small pieces of preferred iron 6,7 i are placed under the lower arm
9- Similar parts shall be placed under the upper armature and above the letter of intensity of the med to suspend the iron until the end of the firing, so the purpose of this is that there is no marbling in the iron if it remains for a long period before throwing, so the concrete does not cover it from under it.
10- Fermentation of concrete in the proportions required by the specifications.
11- Casting reinforced bases and meds is carried out according to the above mentioned in pouring bases with agglutination and compaction well and then leveling the surface with two rulers until the concrete surface is covered with cement foam and so that no iron appears at all on the surface, and the sides are disassembled after 72:24 hours and sprayed with heavy water spray for 3 Days after 24 hours of casting, the reinforced concrete is thrown to the field and the reinforced bases after striking it on the blotter and stirring two or three hearts on the blotter and two hearts with sprinkling with water while reducing the percentage of water as possible, because there is a percentage of the water that the mixture adds during the throwing.
12- The pods should be thrown from a very low height, and the formalization pushes the concrete between the med iron and the bases with two levers in its hand, and the concrete is blown with the lever, and it is usually either a piece of wood or a 6-skew iron. And the absence of any nesting in the concrete, taking into account the absence of any non-coated sand and cement, as well as the absence of any iron at all other than the required signs.

3- Unwinding the sides of the rules and the tensile strength 48:24 hours after the completion of pouring and spraying it with heavy water for three days, while keeping the jaws tight during the disassembly process, so as not to break the sock and the letters of the bases and the med, then the iron will be exposed.
14- Armed confusion in cases where the probability of the soil of the earth is very weak.
How to make an armed attack:

It is done according to the following steps:
1) The excavation work ends with the required levels and the breadth of the ordinary plaster while ensuring access to the level of soil required for foundation.
2) Ordinary concrete for the first bed or brush shall be poured with the thickness and specifications mentioned, on layers not exceeding 20 cm with a good ramming and heavy spraying with water for 3 days after 24 hours of casting.
3) Arming the armed flake according to the drawings, and its reinforcement is often made of two upper and lower grids to resist the tension effort in its upper and lower surfaces with the work of iron chairs with 4 diameters to make the upper grille and install it to the required height.
4) The sides of the armed flank are defined by the sides of the wooden wrenches, such as the separate reinforced bases.
5) The reinforced bed shall be poured with proportions, levels and fish as requested, on layers of 20 cm thickness, taking into account the covering of all reinforcing steel with concrete.

6) The sizes of any bases or medes required above are determined on the surface of the upper surface, and their reinforcement with the concrete is buried or visible, according to the design.
7) The spray splashes with water 3 days 24 hours after pouring.
  The work of any hooks required in Al-Labshah shall be taken into consideration for the passage of any connections or fittings such as sewage, sanitary or electricity, and also take into account that any part of the band is left to extend or to connect another part of the origin or to complete the throwing.
Thus, concrete casting for the bases, whether they were ordinary or reinforced concrete, and with all types of foundations, has been completed

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14 Dec
Manual construction tools
Manual construction tools

Manual construction tools:
It is the construction tools that are used manually (non-automatic) and the most prominent of them

ax:
A tool used for drilling foundations, mixing and stirring raw materials

Creek:
 It is a tool consisting of a long wooden stick, connected from the bottom with a wide, flat, and flat piece of iron, used in mixing concrete materials, raising dust and transporting materials during the drilling process

The crisis (Al-Farou'a):
 It is an ax-like device consisting of a long metal or wooden stick connected from the bottom with a piece of iron. The branches are used in the foundation drilling process.

Al-Banawi's Coming:
 Tool consisting of a tapered metal head attached to a short iron hand ending with a wooden handle, and is used in the process of breaking bricks and packing the shape of a stone

The rulers (the spoon):
 It is a flat and small iron piece connected to a small iron handle, which ends with a wooden hand, and the rulers are used in brushing the concrete mix between the brick molds during construction, and in the shortening and smoothing of the walls, and in the application of white paste on the walls before doing the paint, as it is used to break the pieces of the brick sometimes. The two lines are of two types:

Circular or oval rulers: are the two rulers that are used for matting (concrete)

Two rulers: the two rulers that are used for cleaning


Embryos (chisel):
 It is a flat bar flattened on one end, and sharp on the other end used to make holes in the walls to install scaffolds by knocking them on the strokes.

Al-Qarawana:
 It is a steel container used to transport mortar to the construction site

Bucket (bucket):
It is a bucket made of iron or copper, used to lift water and transport it from one place to another

Cart:
It is a deep container, mounted on a durable frame attached to two long handles that have one wheel, and the cart is used to transfer special materials in construction from one place to another, such as transporting bricks, sand or gravel and others

Roller brush:
It is a roll brush that connects with a light and long iron hand that ends in a wooden handle, and is used for painting roofs and walls.

the corner:
 It is a metal tool in the form of an angle that is used to adjust the angles of the intersection of the walls, and comes in several forms according to the type of angle required and its measurement, some of it is sharp, and some of it is upright, and some of it is included

Tension adjustment thread:
 It is a long line used to adjust the integrity of the walls

Tape measure:
 It is used to measure long distances that are not available in the regular ruler, and the most prominent forms of measuring tapes are: the metric tape inside a carton, where the measuring tape is located inside a 5-meter long plastic box, and the longitudinal tape can be used by one person, and the long-distance measuring tape; Measuring tape made of steel or teal, the use of which requires two people

Sieve:
 A filter-like device, usually made of iron or aluminum, that is used to sift building materials before mixing them

Leveling Balance (Water Balance):
It is a rectangular device made of aluminum, plastic, wood or iron, and its function is to adjust the straightness of the horizontal and vertical walls.

Drill

It is a small electric motor on which a metal feather is placed (with different sizes), the dril takes a shape similar to the shape of a pistol, and is used to drill and puncture the walls, to install the electrical boxes and extend the wires and others


Mixer:
 It is a machine consisting of a large container in the form of a closed cylindrical barrel made of metal, connected to an engine, the mixture contains a driving room, and is used in mixing building materials of large quantities, to form concrete mixtures that are used to pour the roofs of houses and buildings.

Compressing:
It is an iron box containing an engine. It has a huge handle with a sharp pointed tip. The compressors are used to break rocks, dig areas that need pits, and make up absorbing bells.

Piston:
It is a hollow iron machine, used to produce the bricks used in the construction, where a special mixture is placed in it, and it is pressed to produce the required bricks of different shapes and sizes, and the brick press is available in the special brick factories.

Stone scissors:
 There are stone scissors in the stone quarries (quarries), and it has several forms, and we can say that it generally consists of a very sharp and wide metal piece connected to a strong motor, the function of which is to cut the rock and cut the stone that was extracted from certain places of different sizes and sizes, arrangement and quilting, The specifications required to be used after that in building the facades of buildings such as houses, buildings, and others

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14 Dec
Kinds of wood
Kinds of wood

the wood
 Many people are confused when they want to buy furniture in the quality of good wood, which has a high tolerance, and lasts for a longer period, there are many types of wood, including: solid wood, and soft wood, and each type of these types have distinct characteristics, and uses for it make it a favorite For others, we will talk about the distinctive properties of wood, and the most famous and prominent types of wood found in the countries of the world
A - Wood Characteristics Wood is evaluated according to the characteristics that distinguish it, including:
1 - Hardness
There are two types of wood: hardwood and softwood. These denominations do not indicate the degree of hardness of wood, but rather the type of trees from which it was taken, and hardwood is not necessarily more solid than softwood. Hardwood is wood that is extracted from trees covered with seeds (flowering plants) while softwood is extracted from cones or plants. Naked seed, in general it can be said that most types of hardwood are more solid than most types of softwood, with exceptions. Hardwood is more valuable than softwood, with exceptions also.
2- Wood Building:
 The construction of wood depends on the size of the cells that make up the wood. These are the wooden vessels. If the vessels are very small, the wood has a narrow or close-grained texture, and it is characterized by smooth texture. Examples include beech, birch, maple, cherry, sandalwood, And glue, but if the cells are large, the wood has a broad and rough texture, such as oak, walnut, mahogany, rosewood and teak. Although softwood does not contain wooden containers, it is - for practical purposes - classified as wood grain.
3- Fibers and color:
 Some types of wood are straight, wavy, or striped fibers, and differ in color, including white, pale yellow, red, purple, and black.
B - types of wood The following are the most important types of wood
1 - Beech wood
Beechwood is extracted from beech trees, which are deciduous trees, and its original habitat is the temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. There are approximately ten types of beech trees, including Chinese beech, Japanese beech, and Mexican beech. The color of the beech wood is brownish-red. It is used in the manufacture of furniture, floors, shipping containers, handles for tools, wooden tools,
 Among the types of beech wood:
American beech: It is hard and tough.
European beech: Also known as common beech, it is a species of wood.
Oak
The oak or oak is extracted from the oak trees that grow in the northern hemisphere, which are trees that may be evergreen, or fallen leaves. The oak wood is distinguished by its strength, flexibility, durability, the beauty of its fibers, and its resistance to pests, as well as its multiple colors; it includes white oaks, red and black. Its uses are similar to those of beech wood, it is used to make expensive luxury furniture, floors, wooden tools, pots and knobs, in buildings, and in the manufacture of rafters used to install mines, in railway panels, and in barrels.
Branwood
 Hardwood is a hardwood, and it is of white species, whose trees grow in Northeastern America, European, red, and red. It is strong and flexible at the same time; therefore it is used in the manufacture of bows, luxury baseball bats, tosses and guitars, and office furniture. Black bran is used to make bamboo baskets, and it is also used as firewood.
linden
 Plywood is a cheap price for hardwoods, with straight and rounded fibers, and its pores are very small. Its color ranges from cream white to cream brown or reddish brown.
birch
Birch wood or bars is a solid wood, yellowish-brown in color, and its grains are close, moderate in price and used in the manufacture of all types of furniture.
cedar
 Cedar is a kind of soft wood that is very expensive, and there are several types of it: white cedar wood, oriental red cedar wood, western red cedar wood, Japanese cedar wood, and others. The color of cedar wood is pale red, and the surface contains lines and knots, and is used to manufacture boxes, tanks, pencils, small boats, and tiles, and it is characterized by its ability to resist insects and spoilage, its aromatic smell, and its closely related granules, as it does not need bleaching or dyeing.
White pine wood
 Pine is one of the types of soft wood that is expensive, and ranges in color from creamy to yellowish brown, and its grains are close together, showing clearly the growth rings. It is used to make all kinds of furniture of different styles, it is widely used in making furniture in colonial style, and also on modern style.
Black cherry wood
 Black cherry wood is a kind of hard-grained wood, its color ranges from light brown to dark reddish brown, it is characterized by the beauty of its grains and is used in the manufacture of furniture especially the beautiful cabinets are expensive, and is usually painted with a light paint to highlight its color. A disadvantage of black cherry wood is the difficulty in dealing with it using hand tools, and its high price.
elm
 Elm is a kind of curved solid wood, and its color ranges from light brown to dark brown, and often contains red lines, and attractive and beautiful grains, and is used to manufacture all types of furniture, especially curved wood. Ash is scarce, as a result of the exposure of ash trees to Dutch elm disease, which has eliminated many of them, so it is expensive.
Mahogany wood.

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14 Dec
How to paint
How to paint

How to paint
Paint:
Paint can be defined as the last layer in which all surfaces are painted, such as floors, walls, ceilings, metal, and wood. The paint, in turn, gives the surfaces a special aesthetic character, and it also protects the surfaces from damage and the influence of weather conditions. The paint material mainly consists of four main components, namely
Association Article:
It is a liquid substance whose function is to carry all the other components of the paint, which determines the type of paint, whether it is oily, aqueous, alcoholic, or cellulose, in the sense that the binder determines the value of the paint.
Basic rules:
It is the powder making-up that carries the main body texture
Colored oxides:
It is what gives the paint the desired color degree

Preparing the surface for painting:

Before starting the process of painting, the surface must be prepared to receive the faces of the paint, and this is done by doing the following:
1- Clean the surface to be well applied, and remove the dirt and dust accumulated on me
2- Sand the surface using special tools, such as glass paper or rough stones
3- Cover the pores in the wall with the paste of the walls, and leave them to dry
4- Sanding what pasted after the paste dries, to smooth the surface and remove pimples
5- Clean the surface from the dust resulting from the sanding process, and dry it to make the surface ready to receive the paint layers

6- Covering areas that do not want to be painted with a blue paint tape to cover electrical switches, door handles, door and window frames, and parts that may be brushed or drowned during painting. It is not recommended to use adhesive tape that may be difficult to remove after the procedure is completed.
Starting the painting process:
After preparing the surface for painting, the paint process begins by following these steps:
1- Pour the right amount of paint into a bowl of a size proportional to the roller and brush
2- Dip the paint roller into the paint bowl, and filter the excess drops well before removing them from the container

3- Roll the paint saturated with the paint on the wall from bottom to top and back, and make sure all the edges and edges are painted on top and bottom
4- Moving the saturated cylinder with paint on the surface of the wall in the form of a letter
5- Continue to add more paint to the cylinder and do the previous process, until the wall is completely painted
6- Leave the paint on the wall until it dries according to the manufacturer's drying time, and ensure that the paint color is the color required to continue painting all parts of the bag.

After completing the paint process
After the wall has been painted with the appropriate paint color, the following steps should be followed:
Remove the blue paint tape before the paint has completely dried, to prevent accidentally removing any part of the dried paint with the blue paint tape
To get rid of the smell of paint inside the house, it is recommended to quickly get rid of the annoying smell of paint by cutting about 6-7 onions in the form of large pieces, put them inside a large container filled with water, and put the pot in the center of the room painted with paint.

Paint selection criteria
There are many tips and standards that can be followed to achieve a better result in the paint process, and these criteria are:
 Determine the areas and walls to be painted in detail, in order to determine the quantities of paint and the cost required, as the finishes include three types of paint, namely: prominent-touch paints, regular paints, multicolored paints and effects. These types differ from each other in terms of cost. The usual paints are the lowest costs, while multicolored paints have the highest cost.
Choice of well-known brand paints, preferably linked to European experiences, because they provide products with high quality and according to international standards.

Find out whether the paint is cleanable or not; there are cleanable paints, which are cleaned using a towel damped in water, and there are washable paints which are half-gloss to full glossy, and can be washed Using soap and water.

Determine the budget for the paint, the budget varies from person to person, but it is advised that high-cost paints are used in places where individuals spend most of their time such as the guest room and the living room, while other rooms such as bedrooms can be painted with regular paints, the colors of which match the furniture, The use of paint with a prominent texture in the outdoor courtyard for a beautiful view.

Determine the colors required for all rooms of the house after choosing the furniture, to match the color of the furniture with the paint, and this may be mistaken by some, as they choose the color of the paint before the furniture; all the colors of the paint are always available, while the colors of the furniture are limited.

Agreeing with a documented and detailed contract for all paint work inside the house, in addition to specifying the type of paint, its color, and the number of layers of paint, in addition to agreeing on the termination of work and delivery, in the event that a contractor wants to do a house painting.

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14 Dec
MARBLE
MARBLE

Install marble in the internal facades
The installation of marble in the internal and external façades is not very different from each other, as the difference is only in making calculations and studies to determine the thickness, size, type of marble used, and how it is installed.
 There are several methods:
 - The traditional installation with cement mortar
Mechanical installation
First: The traditional composition with cement mortar
Executive drawings are to be made of the façades to be clad in marble, specifying the dimensions, thickness, and shape required for the marble
The responsible engineer studies the descriptive boards that explain the finishing materials and the method of their installation, then makes the necessary order according to the sizes indicated in the panels and the appropriate amount for the wall surfaces.
After the completion of the electrical installations and the required quantities of marble, the installation process begins
According to the following steps:
The first marble row (the first row above the floor) is made by making the first row of marble. It is the most important row in the walls, where it is simplified and arranged according to the drawings and according to the space on the ground. .
- After the end of the first row, it is watered with cement mortar (to not be a thread of the mortar closest to the liquid and rich in cement), and watering is carried out in stages meaning that the row is not watered in one go as this may lead to the collapse of gypsum bonds and damage to the installation process
Rather, watering is done with a height not exceeding 10 cm each time after the end of the watering. The gypsum bonds at the top of the row that have been installed are removed, so the technician installs the next row in the same way, taking into account that there are no teeth between the rows, either horizontally or vertically, and the tiles are completely vertical.
The installation and watering process continues one row at a time until all the walls are finished.
Gypsum marble is cleaned with water after being broken
Features of the traditional method
Low cost
Suitable for all types of marble
Disadvantages of the traditional method
Drink marble for the water in the mortar
It depends on the segmentation of marble into slats when making decorations and covering cornices and columns
The cohesion strength between marble and adhesive may disintegrate in the event of earthquakes and intense vibrations
The walls on which the marble will be installed must be of solid brick or block to enable the iron corners to be well fixed and not be removed under any condition.
 Wall mounted to hold 5 * 5 The first row of marble should be installed on the corner of the first row iron which holds the rest of the facade
7 1.5 must be filled behind the first meter height of marble with cement and sand mortar, because this is due to the space behind the marble slabs, so it can be broken easily if any object collides with it at this level.
Mechanical Features
Ease of disassembling a tile and replacing it in the event of breakage or the presence of some connections behind the tiles
 Suitable in hot places where the coefficient of expansion of marble differs from the coefficient of expansion of concrete, leading to the breaking of tiles
The color of the marble does not change, as in the case of watering in the traditional way of its interaction with mortar - Easy to transport and install to another location
Disadvantages of the mechanical method
High prices of installation supplies
Non-proliferation of workers specialized in this field

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14 Dec
Types of modern paints
Types of modern paints

Types of modern paints
1- Aqueous plastic paint:
This type of paint is used to paint the interior and exterior walls, and this paint is characterized by its ability to prevent the formation of rust, so it is used in painting metal surfaces, as it is characterized by allowing walls and walls to breathe, and its prices are simple, as it is not affected by washing with water, and this type of The paint has many colors that are calm in nature, and this paint also enables the workers to paint an entire room on the same day in a final and elaborate manner, and it should be noted that it is not possible to paint the wooden surfaces with this paint

2- Marbleizing:
The walls appear as marble and at a much lower cost than marble
3- Oil or lacquered paint:
This type of paints is one of the most used types of paints, i.e. the most famous types of paints, and this type of paint is used in painting interior walls, and the color of this paint is often changed if it is not exposed to light properly, as it is characterized by its ease of cleaning and its resistance to water
.4- Aging paint:
This paint gives the antique atmosphere to the void
5- Lime paint:
This paint is used on both cement bricks and whites only, meaning that this type of paint cannot be used in paint, iron, wood, or even the whiteness of the pot, and this type of paint is difficult and tired to deal with, as it often cracks and falls quickly, so It is one of the lowest quality types of walls, and this paint is widely used in painting warehouses

6- Wallpaper:
It is a paper that sticks to the interior walls instead of using paint, and these papers are available in many colors and shapes, a search that satisfies all tastes and is suitable for different home decorations. It is easy to change whenever an individual wants to change his home décor, as it does not cost a lot of money compared to painting, but this paper is usually scratched and quickly injured, especially in the case of children, and this is its biggest big defect

7- Pearl paint:
This paint mostly lends a shiny and pearly appearance to the walls
8- Tishinto paint:
This paint gives the interior walls a velvety look
9- Marcopolo Paints:
This paint is used for the inner wall and gives it a desert shine
10- Caprice paint:
Lends walls glossiness and protects them from moisture

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